Welker, A.L., Sample-Lord, K.M., Yost, J.R. (2017). Weaving entrepreneurially minded learning throughout a civil engineering curriculum, ASEE Annual Conference and Exposition, Conference Proceedings, 2017-June

The Kern Family Foundation has provided funding to Villanova University to implement the Kern Entrepreneurial Engineering Network (KEEN) initiative. This nearly decade-old initiative seeks to instill concepts of Entrepreneurially Minded Learning (EML) into the undergraduate engineering curriculum. EML emphasizes educating the "whole engineer" by supplementing traditional engineering theory with nontechnical concepts related to curiosity, connections, and creating value (the three Cs). "Curiosity" encourages students to investigate and question the society that surrounds them within the context of the technical material they are learning in class. In short, it encourages students to be problem seekers and definers as opposed to just problem solvers. Students are then ready to make "Connections" to synthesize new and old knowledge to create innovative solutions to problems. Lastly, "Creating Value" is about improving society and quality of life by creatively applying their engineering skills. It is important to note that this approach to education is not about creating start-ups or commercial products, rather, it is a way to foster inventive thinking. Nearly half of the faculty members in the Civil and Environmental Engineering (CEE) department have participated in KEEN workshops that focus on implementation of EML in their respective courses. These faculty have woven EML throughout the CEE curriculum to ensure that students have assignments that relate to the three Cs every semester from freshman to senior year. These assignments are also used to fulfill ABET and ASCE Civil Engineering Program Criteria. This paper will describe class assignments for courses with EML content, extra- and co-curricular EML activities, the relationship between EML and ABET criterion 3 and the ASCE Civil Engineering Program Criteria, and provide thoughts on linking EML to educational assessment. © American Society for Engineering Education, 2017.

Smith, V.B., Mohrig, D. Geomorphic signature of a dammed Sandy River: The lower Trinity River downstream of Livingston Dam in Texas, USA.  Geomorphology, 297, pp. 122-136.
Reservoirs behind dams act as deposition sites for much of the sediment being transported by rivers. As a result, the downstream river flow can be well below the transport capacity for bed-material. This promotes bed erosion and other geomorphic changes over some length of river located immediately downstream from a dam. These adjustments have been characterized for the Trinity River, TX, downstream of Livingston Dam. Field measurements and results from a 1D numerical model define a 50–60 river kilometer segment of river undergoing bed erosion as the transport capacity for bed material is reestablished. Consequences of this erosion include lowering of the channel bed, reduction in the sediment volume of channel bars, coarsening of sediment on bar tops, steepening of channel banks, and reduction in lateral migration rates of river bends. Repeat surveys of the river long profile reveals that 40 yr of dam closure has produced up to seven meters of channel-bottom incision downstream of the dam, transforming an initially linear profile into a convex-up long profile. The model output matches this observed change, providing confidence that calculated estimates for spatial and temporal changes in bed-material sediment flux can be used to explore the long-term signature of dam influence on the geomorphology of a sand-bed channel. Measurements of channel geometry, profile, lateral migration, and grain size of the lower Trinity River with distance downstream define both the trend and expected variability about the trend associated with the disruption to the bed-material load.

Sample-Lord, K.M., Shackelford, C.D., Membrane behavior of unsaturated sodium bentonite, Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, 144(1), art. no. 04017102.

Chemical containment barriers comprising sodium bentonite (Na-bentonite) have been shown to exhibit semipermeable membrane behavior under saturated conditions. Since membrane behavior results in restricted migration of aqueous-phase chemicals (solutes), the existence of membrane behavior in bentonite-based barriers can significantly improve the containment function of the barriers. However, some bentonite-based barriers exist under unsaturated conditions, and the extent to which the degree of saturation, S, of the barrier affects the existence and magnitude of membrane behavior has not been evaluated heretofore. Accordingly, the membrane efficiency coefficient, ω, of Na-bentonite was measured in the laboratory at constant S in response to applied differences in potassium chloride (KCl) concentrations under closed-system conditions. The results indicated that, for a given S, ω decreased as the source concentration of KCl (Cot) increased, which is consistent with previous studies based on S = 1.0. However, for a given Cot, ω increased with decreasing S, as expected on the basis that a reduction in S corresponds to a reduction in the water-filled pore space accessible for solute migration. Overall, ω ranged from 0.31 at S = 1.0 with Cot = 50 mM KCl to 0.75 at S = 0.79 for Cot = 20 mM KCl. Although the range in S that was evaluated was limited by the testing conditions, which resulted in test durations ranging from 232 to 335 days, the results of this study provide the first quantitative evidence illustrating the effect of S on ω for Na-bentonite.

Sample-Lord, K.M., Shackelford, C.D, Apparatus for measuring coupled membrane and diffusion behavior of unsaturated sodium bentonite, Vadose Zone Journal , 16 ( 9 ) 16 p.
Sodium bentonite (Na-bentonite) has been shown to exhibit semipermeable membrane behavior—the ability to selectively restrict the migration of dissolved chemical species through the pores of the clay. However, experimental research to date has focused on the membrane behavior of Na-bentonite almost exclusively under water-saturated conditions (i.e., degree of saturation S = 1), even though membrane behavior under unsaturated conditions is expected to be more significant. Further, the limited number of studies that have been performed to evaluate membrane behavior in unsaturated soils have used only open systems to quantify membrane efficiency (w), despite the testing advantages of using closed systems (e.g., more accurate measurement of w, easier control of boundary conditions). Thus, a closed-system testing apparatus capable of measuring coupled membrane and diffusion behavior in unsaturated Na-bentonite was developed and then used to measure w and salt diffusion in Na-bentonite with S of 0.84 and 1.0. For a source solution (concentration difference) of 20 mM KCl, w increased from 0.61 to 0.71 as S decreased from 1.0 to 0.84, which is consistent with the current conceptual understanding of membrane behavior and trends in the literature. In contrast, the effective diffusion coefficient for Cl− was essentially the same (i.e., ~1.8 × 10−10m2s−1) for both specimens due to the small difference in S. The development of the testing apparatus advances the state of the art for laboratory measurement of coupled membrane and diffusion behavior in unsaturated clays commonly used as chemical containment barriers.

Traver, R.G., Ebrahimian, A., Dynamic design of green stormwater infrastructure, Frontiers of Environmental Science and Engineering, 11 ( 4 ) , art. no. 15
This paper compares ongoing research results on hydrologic performance to common design and crediting criteria, and recommends a change in direction from a static to a dynamic perspective to fully credit the performance of green infrastructure. Examples used in this article are primarily stormwater control measures built for research on the campus of Villanova University [1,2]. Evidence is presented demonstrating that the common practice of crediting water volume based on soil and surface storage underestimates the performance potential, and suggests that the profession move to a more dynamic approach that incorporates exfiltration and evapotranspiration. The framework for a dynamic approach is discussed, with a view to broaden our design focus by including climate, configuration and the soil surroundings. The substance of this work was presented as a keynote speech at the 2016 international Low Impact Development Conference in Beijing China [3]. © 2017, Higher Education Press and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany.



Shackelford, C.D., Meier, A., Sample-Lord, K. (2016). Limiting membrane and diffusion behavior of a geosynthetic clay liner, Geotextiles and Geomembranes, 44 (5), pp. 707-718

Sample-Lord, K.M., Shackelford, C.D. (2016). Solute diffusion in bentonite pastes, Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, 142 (8), pp. 04016033

Vacca, K., Komlos, J., Wadzuk, B.M. (2016). Phosphorus removal in constructed stormwater wetland mesocosms amended with water treatment residuals, Water Environment Research, 88 (9), pp. 898-906

Zaremba, G., Traver, R., and Wadzuk, B. (2016). "Impact of Drainage on Green Roof Evapotranspiration." J. Irrig. Drain Eng. ,10.1061/(ASCE)IR.1943-4774.0001022 , 04016022.

Lee, R., Traver, R., and Welker, A. (2016). "Evaluation of Soil Class Proxies for Hydrologic Performance of In Situ Bioinfiltration Systems." J. Sustainable Water Built Environ. , 10.1061/JSWBAY.0000813 , 04016003.


Ph.D. Dissertations Student
Rain Garden Evapotranspiration Accounting Amanda Jean Hess, May 2017
An Experimental and Numerical Analysis of Soluble Reactive Phosphorus Removal Mechanisms in Surface-Flow Constructed Stormwater Wetlands Using Soil Amendment Strategies Kaitlin Elizabeth Vacca,  May 2013


Evaluation of Infiltration Practices as a Means to Control Stormwater Runoff Clay Emerson, May 2008
Masters Theses Student
Modeling and Evaluation of Real-Time Controlled Green Infrastructure Seth Bryant
Evaluating Soil Type and Flow Path for the Optimal Balance of Infiltration and Evapotranspiration in Vegetated Stormwater Control Measures to Achieve Maximum Volume and Pollutant Removal Taylor Marie DelVecchio 
Analysis of a Flow Regime: Understanding the Effectiveness of the Headwaters Approach to Restoration and Investigating how an Imperfect Rain Gauge Influences that Understanding Samantha Butwill 
A Retrospective Analysis of a Constructed Stormwater Wetlands Stephanie Mary Molina 
The Fate and Transport of Chloride in a Constructed Stormwater Wetland Erica R. Forgione, May 2016
An Evaluation of Chloride Movement at a Rain Garden Sarah R. Rife, May 2016
An Analysis of Hydraulic Monitoring Equipment for Inflow and Outflow Structures in Urban SCMs Stephanie Elyse Rindosh, April 2016
Fate and Transport of Algae in a Constructed Stormwater Wetland Jhoanna M. Valdez
Water Quality Impacts of a Green Roof in Comparison to Other Land Uses Catherine M. Barr, Dec 2015
 The Design and Implementation of a Green Roof Shelter Research Site Margaret M. Chase, Dec 2015
Evaluating the Performance of a Constructed Stormwater Wetland as a Green Infrastructure Solution Ashley A. Neptune, May 2015
A Hydrologic Evaluation of Pretreatment and Variations in Seasonal and Large Storm Performance of Infiltrating Stormwater Control Measures Conor John Lewellyn, May 2015
Evapotranspiration Measurement and Modeling for a Green Roof System Gerald Zaremba, April 2015
Hydrologic Analysis of Prompton Dam Using a Physically-Based Rainfall Runoff Model Michael Bartles, Dec 2014 
Long Term Performance of a Bioinfiltration Rain Garden with Respect to Metals Removal Sarah A. Bates, May 2014
Monitoring of Evapotranspiration and Infiltration in Rain Garden Designs Amanda J. Hess, April 2014
The Implementation and Evaluation of Stormwater Control Measures in Series Cara Elizabeth Lyons, May 2013
Evaluation of Stormwater Control Measures from the Micro and Macro Perspectives: Low Cost Monitoring of Nutrients in Non-Vegetated Systems and Watershed-Scale Effects of Rain Gardens


Erin Lawrence Dovel, May 2013
Evaluation of nitrogen removal and fate within a bioinfiltration stormwater control measure


Laura Elizabeth Lord, May 2013


Evaluating Nutrient Removal and Hydraulic Efficiency in a Free Water Surface Flow Constructed Stormwater Wetland


Michael G. Rinker, May 2013


Quantifying Evapotranspiration through a Sensitivity Study of Climate Factors and Water Table Interactions for a Constructed Wetland Mesocosm Nha Truong, May 2012
Evaluation Of Green Infrastructure Practices Using Life Cycle Assessment Kevin Flynn, 2011
Evaluating the Role of Evapotranspiration in the Hydrology of Bioinfiltration and Bioretention Basins Using Weighing Lysimeters John Hickman Jr. 2011
Evaporation from A Pervious Concrete Stormwater SCM: Estimating the Quantity and its Role in the Yearly Water Budget  Evgeny Nemirovsky 2011
The Application Of An Integrated Monitoring Plan On Stormwater Control Measures Kathryn Greising, 2011
Modeling Infiltration In A Stormwater Control Measure Using Modified Green And Ampt Ryan Lee, 2011
Urban Hydrology Modeling with EPA’s Stormwater Management Model (SWMM) and Analysis of Water Quality in a Newly Constructed Stormwater Wetland James Pittman, 2011
Quantifying Evapotranspiration from a Green Roof Analytically  Dominik Schneider, 2011
Quantifying Evapotranspiration in Green Infrastructure: A Green Roof Case Study Meghan Feller, 2011
A Randomization Process for Modeling Constructed Wetlands with an Optimization Example Gerrard Jones, March 2010
A Side by Side Water Quality Comparison of Pervious Concrete and Porous Asphalt, and an Investigation into the Effects of Underground Infiltration Basins on Stormwater Temperature James Barbis, Dec 2009
Continuous Simulation of an Infiltration Trench Best Management Practice Hans Benford, May 2009
The Observed Effects of Stormwater Infiltration on Groundwater Matthew Machusick, May 2009
Water Quantity Comparison of Pervious Concrete and Porous Asphalt Products for Infiltration Best Management Practices Patrick Jeffers, Jan 2009
Pollutant Removal Efficiency of a Mature Constructed Wetland Over the Course of a Year Kelly Flynn, Dec 2008
A Soil Profile Characterization of a Bioinfiltration BMP Keisha Isaac-Ricketts Aug 2008
An Integrated Monitoring Plan for Best Management Practices Krista Hankins, May 2008
Fatty Acid Methyl Ester Profiling of Enterococcus and Esherichia coli for Microbial Source Tracking Deniz Yurtsever, Sept 2007
The Implications of the First Flush Phenomenon on Infiltration BMP Design Tom Batroney, May 2007
An Infiltration Model of an Underground Rock Storage Bed Infiltration  Megan Vanacore, Jan 2007
Stormwater Total Hydrocarbon and Hydrologic Mass Balance and a Chloride Mass Balance of the VU Stormwater Wetland D. Salas-DeLaCruz, 2007
Evaluation and Restoration of Two Seepage Pits with Special Considerations for Nutrient, Metal, and Bacterial Contents Matt Gore, Oct 2007
An Examination of the Effect of Plant Density on Low Reynolds Number Flow in a Wetland Erin Burke, Aug 2007
Characterization Study of a Bio-Infiltration Stormwater BMP Jordan Ermilio, Dec 2005
Pollutant Removal Efficiency and Seasonal Variation of a Storm Water Wetland BMP Gregg Woodruff, Sept 2005
A Hydrologic Analysis Of An Infiltration BMP Erika Dean, Sept 2005
An Infiltration Analysis of the Villanova  Porous Concrete Infiltration Basin BMP  Andrea Braga, Sept 2005
Pollutant Removal Efficiency of a Stormwater Wetland BMP during Baseflow and Storm Events Matthew Rea, Sept 2004
Water Quality Study of a Porous Concrete Concrete Infiltration BMP Michael Kwiatkowski, May 2004
Water Quantity Study of a Porous Concrete Concrete Infiltration BMP Tyler Ladd, June 2004
Determining the Effectiveness of the Villanova Bio-Infiltration Traffic Island in Infiltrating Annual Runoff Matt Prokop, May 2003
Undergraduate Research Student
Thermal Enrichment - A study of Villanova's Stormwater Wetlands Site Kelly C. Doyle, May 2005
Chloride Concentration Evaluation: Villanova Porous Concrete Site  Andrea Braga, May 2004
Exploration of the Ecological Integrity of a Constructed Wetland vs. a Natural Stream on the Villanova University Campus in Southeastern Pennsylvania Matthew Ortynsky, 2004