Design Components

When monitoring a SCM, there is a minimum amount of equipment and manpower needed to prove effectiveness. This level must be increased depending upon land usage. The IMP focuses on monitoring three distinct levels based on economics and land use. 

Residential, suburban and ultra-urban sites focus on areas in which society lives and plays. Some examples include:

  • Single family residential homes (with open space and minimal street traffic)

  • Single or double family suburban homes (with less open space and more heavily trafficked roads)

  • Apartment buildings or condominiums in major metropolitan areas (with heavy street traffic and little to no pervious cover)

Designs for this methodology should focus on keeping nature beautiful while protecting the water downstream. Residential and suburban areas require more open space, allowing for installation of a larger variety of SCMs. Urban areas use more compact SCMs. With the advancement of stormwater regulations, new developments, like planned communities, are starting to incorporate SCMs into their design.

Although SCMs can be incorporated elegantly into these uses, overseeing the site is an issue that few homeowners want to do. Consequently, monitoring and maintenance must be completed by municipal or township employees. Therefore, for these SCMs, the monitoring effort must be minimal and efficient.

SCMs installed at commercial and industrial sites need to be more effective in reducing runoff and pollutant loadings than those installed at residential, suburban, and ultra-urban sites. These sites include

  • Business complexes (where the general public works)

  • Shopping centers and malls (where the general public amasses life’s essential needs and wants)

  • Places with minimal pervious cover caused by the increased need for paved parking lots and buildings.

In a commercial setting, aesthetics are important due to the desire to draw customers. Structural SCMs can be designed to reflect nature or be constructed underground and therefore, be invisible to the naked eye. Aesthetics are not as important in industrial settings, which focus more on the constituents that need to be controlled on site. A SCM at an industrial site must eliminate or remove pollutants to regulated standards.

SCMs in a commercial and industrial setting therefore require more intensive monitoring and maintenance than rural, suburban, and ultra-urban uses. The capital for more intensive monitoring is there, but the desire to use the funds may not be. The task of monitoring the SCMs, in many instances, will be left up to the janitorial or maintenance staff. If the SCM was constructed to control water quality pollutants or contaminants, a scientist or lab technician may be considered.

SCMs installed at research and educational sites tend to be the most advanced when it comes to monitoring. Sometimes research may even be performed on a commercial or industrial site, with monitoring being performed by a scientist or lab technician.

SCMs used for research or educational purposes are only designed aesthetically when in the public eye. The focus in this setting is on determining the best way to construct SCMs, where SCMs will be most effective, and the longevity of a structural SCM when properly maintained.

Monitoring is completed by those who designed the SCM, with the help of student researchers, to gain further knowledge about all aspects of the SCM. A SCM on a research or educational site therefore will have the greatest amount of equipment and the most intensive monitoring efforts.